Learning Theories Research Paper – EdTech 504

My EdTech 504 Learning Research Paper is about how I acquire knowledge about the learning theories that can be applied in my room to help students succeed. Three of the most common educational theories used in classroom over the last handful of decades are behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism. Newer theories have also developed, and are at various levels of adoption now in classrooms. For my paper I chose to look at one of the oldest, behaviorism, because many of the teachers who are in school now were raised and trained with that style. Behaviorism is based on the idea by setting up a controlled learning situation and adding positive and negative rewards for certain behaviors, one can ensure learning (Watson, 1913). Much of what I read showed me that it fell out of fashion as a learning theory because it never truly sought to discover how students learned, but rather how to create conditions conducive to learning. My conclusion was that these conditions could be used in conjunction with more modern theories to provide students with the best learning environment possible. I feel that the study I’ve done of various learning theories and how they can be applied is highlighted in this paper, has given me the background knowledge to be able to create instruction that is geared toward the needs of my students, and adds to my qualification to be approved for my degree.


Digital Divide – EdTech 501

Scott Hogan

Nampa South Middle School

229 W. Greenhurst Rd.

Nampa, ID 83686


Dear Parents of South Middle School Students:


My name is Scott Hogan, and I am a teacher here at South Middle School.  I am writing to you today to make you aware of a term that I just recently learned, which is connected to a situation that most of us probably knew existed.  The problem is that my students, your children, probably have greater access to the internet here at school than they do at home.  The term associated with this problem is “digital inequality.”  According to a 2006 report, if you are part of an ethnic minority, didn’t get a college degree, or make less than $20,000 a year, statistics show that your child will probably not have nearly as much internet access at home as they do at school. (Computer Use, 2006)  The study shows that schools have done an admirable job of providing up to 83% of students nationwide access to computers and the internet at school. (Carvin, 2006)  For students whose parents are some of the above mentioned groups, these same reports show that there will be 20-40% less internet access available at home.  Unfortunately, this may have some effect on your student’s ability to do homework and projects–both now and in the future.  As long ago as 2003, the U.S. Census Bureau found that 57% of students ages 7 to 17 used the internet at home to help them complete assignments. (Computer Use, 2006)  One can be assured that as availability of computers has gone up in the last 7 years, so has their use by students in homes.

I am not writing to you to add to the pressures you already face as a parent.  From what I see in the daily interactions with my students, you as parents are doing what you can to give kids their best chance to succeed in both school and life.  I know you want the best for them.  My purpose today is simply to make you aware of statistics showing that interaction with computers at home, and access to appropriate internet sites, will become increasingly important for your child’s educational success as South Middle School works to include the newest technologies into our teaching methods.  As a teacher I pledge to you that I will always give students time in our computer labs when my assignment calls for internet resources.  I will not give homework that requires you to have internet access in your home.  However, there will be many assignments throughout the year that would benefit from such access.  Also, there are countless sites that offer troves of information that would make their learning experience in my classroom more valuable.  If there is anything I can do to put you in touch with resources that will help your student in the future, please do not hesitate to contact me.


Scott Hogan



Carvin, Andy. (2006). New Govt. Report Exposes the School-Home Digital Divide. Learning.now, Sept. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/teachers/learning.now/2006/09/new_report_exposes_the_schoolh.html

Computer and Internet Use by Students in 2003. (2006, September 5). Retrieved September 21, 2008, from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2006065.


My EdTech 501 Digital Divide Letter to Parents is one of the artifacts I’ve chosen to show my mastery of the idea that one must know about the learner to help that person succeed. As was typical of my experiences at BSU, I had never even heard of the term digital divide before I enrolled. I hadn’t even given much thought to students’ at home computer use since I didn’t have them use school computers very heavily either. Research for my letter showed that while students at school had very good access to computers and the internet (83% of children), depending on their economic and ethnic backgrounds that rate could dip to as low as 20-30% with access to computers and the internet once they got home (Computer Use, 2006). The school district in which I teach lies within a city that is surrounded by agricultural. The report found that rural areas also saw less use of computers at home. We have a wide range of socioeconomic backgrounds in our classrooms, and a large hispanic population. All of these factors can statistically lower a student’s chances of having adequate access to educational technology at home. The point of the letter was to make parents aware of this potential problem. I assured them that their child would not be forced to do assignments that required access to technology they didn’t have, but did inform them of why we thought it was important for their student to get hands on experience with computers as soon as possible. This letter shows the parent that as a teacher I understand certain aspects about my students that makes me highly qualified to help them overcome their challenges, and my mastery of this AECT standard. As my school increases its use of Web 2.0 tools, I should try to get this letter included in the information we give out to parents at the beginning of the school year (once I refresh the research information).



Livability WebQuest – EdTech 502

For EdTech 502 I created a webquest that had students answering the question, “What Makes a Place Livable?”.  In it, careful planning was done to make sure that even a student, or teacher, who had no previous experience with the idea of livability could follow the sequencing to complete the instruction.  Even if someone had never been exposed to the idea of a learning theme, the website had planned instruction for that as well.  Each step in the process built on the previous step, and students had a core group that they worked within that could provide feedback along the way.  I realized fairly quickly in my master’s program that having someone else to bounce ideas off and check for understanding can really make a difference in my confidence level with a project, so I decided to build that into this project as well.  It also required students to get their work peer reviewed for feedback prior to completion.  Again, this allows for mistakes to be corrected before grading, and increases the chances that the final product is of high quality.  A rubric was created that made it simple for students to know exactly what was expected of them.  The thought put into the sequencing of instructional events creates a situation where students have a much better chance of success.

Livability Unit Pre-Survey e-Book – EdTech 541

The eBook that I created as a tool to be used before my students conducted a survey for our Livability Unit is what I’ve chosen for this standard.  The pre-survey eBook that I created for EdTech 541 shows my mastery for this specific standard.  Rather than simply handing the students a piece of paper, this ebook of instructions is available to them anywhere.  They often lose paper.  All of the instructions for the Livability Unit we did for geography class were put on a classroom website, with links to this eBook being included.  I knew that both teachers and students could potentially be using these instructions, and I wanted it to be something a little more engaging than your average handout.  Part of the lesson was also for students to create an eBook as part of the survey they’d be administering.  Part of the message they were to receive for this was the ability to create their own ebook later in the unit.  By allowing them to physically manipulate (in a virtual sense) an example of what they’d be creating, students were able to see as well as “touch” the instructions.

Myebook - Thematic Unit: Geographic Livability - click here to open my ebook

Five Themes of Geography Jigsaw Activity – EdTech 502

The other artifact I chose the 5 Themes of Geography Jigsaw activity created in EdTech 502.  Students needed to learn the basics of geography and this lesson, which would be completed online, was a great way to do it.  They were instructed to work in groups, with each member researching just one of the five themes.  One of the most frustrating things for teachers that have the guts to take their students into the school’s computer lab is when class time is wasted by inefficient searching.  This ‘technology generation’ of students can be really bad at using the web for educational purposes.  By using the jigsaw format and a custom built webpage I was able to avoid much of the time that normally would have been wasted in poor research efforts.  Sites with relevant information were found in advance and organized by theme so that students knew very quickly where to go for help finding their specific resources.  Besides using the web page as an organizer for the sites, I also put assignment instructions, and even some tips on group work dynamics.  By planning for how both students and teachers could interact with the content of this lesson I showed mastery of this standard.

Final ID Project – EdTech 503

Scott Hogan

EdTech 503 (Fall 2010)

Instructional Design Project

November 2, 2010

Project Title:  Using Web 2.0 Tools to Create Slide Presentations  

Part 1.  Topic

Part 1a – Learning Goal:

Given photos taken locally students will create a slideshow,  using Google Docs Presentation Software, where each slide contains two photos and an explanation of how each photo relates to one of the Five Themes of Geography.

Part 1b –  Audience Description:

The intended audience for this lesson are geography students attending Nampa South Middle School in Nampa, Idaho.  South Middle School has 6th-8th grades and is in the Nampa School District.

Part 1c – Rationale

Today’s (and tomorrow’s) classrooms should be offering students more opportunities to interact with technologies that will benefit them in their future academic and professional careers.  A tool that is often used in schools for assessment is the PowerPoint or slide presentation.  One of the problems I face as a teacher is access to a computer lab and the limits of the software on those computers.  When students create things at school in the lab, that is often where the work remains until we can get to the lab again.  However, with new Web 2.0 and “cloud based” applications available, students can begin projects at school and have access to them anywhere a computer has internet access.

Cloud based applications that are similar to Microsoft’s Word, Excel, and PowerPoint also allow greater student collaboration opportunities.  By creating an account with Google students are able to have access to programs similar to the ones mentioned above, but not tethered to one computer.  Files don’t need to be put on a thumb drive or CD.  By logging in to Google from any location the work is there.  Anyone with a Google account can have “shared” access to projects if given permission by the owner.  An unlimited number of kids could get online at the same time and chat about, collaborate on, and edit an assignment all at once.  All it takes to accomplish this is an account and some exposure to the technology.

The purpose of the assignment is to expose students to the slide presentation application’s capabilities once they have set up an account.  Students will learn to upload photos from a home computer to the site, learn how to insert those photos using an image’s URL (PowerPoint presentations are limited to images stored on your computer), and use information gathered in previous lessons in a project that utilizes Google slide presentations.

This lesson would be considered a supplantive instructional strategy with procedural learning outcomes since the students will have a very well defined set of instructions and steps to follow.  Students will be allowed to make choices along the way regarding titles of slides and background colors or themes, but the main point of the lesson hinges on their ability to perform the designed task. Part 2.  Analysis Report

Part 2a – Description of Need

Currently there is no area of curriculum in our school that addresses how students can take advantage of many of the new Web 2.0 tools.  There was initial resistance to the use of any tool that allowed students to collaborate online, for fear of harassment among students.  After taking the time to explain in depth what my goals were for these various tools, and creating a “technology waiver” that parents would sign stating that they knew the websites we’d be visiting and our policies of use, I was given permission to use many of the things I’d asked for.

Once I was given the permission I realized that most of the kids had not used any of the things I wanted to incorporate.  While PowerPoint is similar, Google Presentations allow for adding of content that is found using URLs and not file locations on a hard drive.  Also, Google applications allow for collaboration through chat while working from various locations (the use of this tool is not being measured in the assessments).  Google also gives a suite of tools for students who don’t have Windows installed on their computer, and portable file storage options for kids who don’t have home computers or thumb drives.

Part 2a.1 – Needs Assessment Survey

The following is the survey I gave to all the students (135)  in my geography classes.  It gave me very good insights into how my students were prepared for using new technologies.  The results will be added to the final project.  I administered the survey through Google Docs.

  1. Male or Female

  2. From the following list, pick the best way for me to give you instructions.

In writing


Using a video

Using an audio recording

  1. Do you know what a PowerPoint presentation is?

  2. Have you ever made a PowerPoint Presentation?

  3. How confident are you in your skills with making presentations?

1-5 rating scale.  1 low confidence and 5 high confidence.

  1. Have you ever used Google Docs to make a presentation?

  2. Do you know how to use a digital camera?

  3. Do you know how to get images from a digital camera and save them to a computer?

  4. Do you know how to find the URL of an image found online?

  5. Have you ever uploaded photos from your computer to a website?

  6. How do you feel about your ability to upload photos from a computer to the internet?

  7. How interested would you be in taking photos of where you live to do a presentation about the geography of your area?

  1. What would you consider your ethnic background to be?

Caucasian (many would call this white)






  1. Do you have reliable access to a computer at your home?

  2. Do you have an Internet connection at your home?

  3. Do you enjoy using the computer?

  4. How frequently do you use email? (1-5 scale)

  5. What activity to you use the computer for most?

social networking




web surfing/fact-finding

  1. What is the 2nd most common activity you use the computer for?

social networking




web surfing/fact-finding

  1. Where do you most often use the internet when doing school related work?


Friends house

Family members home

Local Library

School computer lab/library

Part 2a.2 – Needs Assessment Data

Data will be included in the final project submission.

Part 2b – Description of the Learning Context

Part 2b.1 – Learning Context

The learners in this situation will begin, and receive almost all of the instruction for, this lesson in our school’s computer lab.  Parts of the work will also be completed outside of school.  In the lab we have 33-36 computers available (depending on which ones are working on a given day) so that each student should be able to have their own work station.  The computers operate Windows 2007 and the browser is Internet Explorer.  Firefox is loaded on some of the computers, but not all, and often crashes, making it unreliable to use.  Students each have dedicated space on which to save files, but that is exactly what we want to get away from.  Students have already set up Google accounts and used their Docs application.  All work for this lesson will be saved to Google Docs.

Part 2b.2 – Transfer Context

While the initial skills in this lesson will be learned and applied in the schools computer lab, they can be applied to any presentation kids will do throughout their educational career.  The ability to find the URL for an image and copy and paste it into documents, presentation, or other types of media will be relevant for the foreseeable future.  Uploading photos to the internet, which give a photo a URL, without having to post them to websites like flickr and photobucket, helps keep kids safe from inappropriate viewing.  The ability to use cloud based applications, or even know what they are, will put students well on their way to preparedness for a wireless world.

Part 2c – Description of Learners

Using the results of my needs analysis I found that the roughly 130 to 135 students in my 7th grade geography classes follow the school districts estimations for race fairly closely.  I have 67% Caucasian, 26% Hispanic/Latino, and small percentages of other ethnic backgrounds.  Even with some discussion about this before the survey I know that some kids still didn’t  quite get the concept that being one-sixty-fourth Cherokee didn’t make you Native American.  Our district has identified approximately 12% of the population of our schools to have limited English proficiency.  Girls make up slightly more than 50% of the population.  Almost 90% of kids said that they had computers in their homes, and roughly the same amount replied that they had reliable internet access.

Part 2d – Learning Task Analysis

Part 3.  Planning

Part 3a – Learning Objectives

1.0 Given photos stored digitally on a computer with internet access, students will be able to upload photos to the internet.

1.1 Given a computer with internet access students will be able to upload photos to their Google Docs account.

1.2 Students will be able to retrieve the URL of each photo for use in their presentation.

2.0 Given a computer with internet access, students will open and create a new presentation using Google Docs Presentation Software.

2.1 Students will be able to correctly remember username and password information for Google Docs.

2.1.1 Students will choose usernames and passwords that are easily remembered or retrieved.

2.1.2 Students will be able to execute password retrieval if information is forgotten.

2.2 Students will open Google Docs and appropriately choose to start a new presentation from the list of options.

2.3 Students will be able to give their presentation the appropriate file name.

2.3.1 Files will be named “5 Themes Photos – Student Names Here”

2.4 Students will successfully create a title slide for a presentation.

2.4.1 Students will create a title that reflects the material of the presentation and names the authors.

2.5 Students will be able to choose an appropriate slide style and title each slide in a presentation appropriately.

2.6 Given a number of options, students will be able to select a theme or background for the presentation that gives it a cohesive and attractive appearance.

2.7 Students will be able to import images into a presentation using a image’s URL.

2.8 Add information to the slide

3.0 Following instruction, students will share a presentation with classmates and the instructor.

3.1 Student can input appropriate information to electronically turn in the assignment to the instructor

3.2 Students can share the presentation with collaborators.

Part 3b – Objectives Matrix Table

Learning Objectives

Bloom’s Taxonomy Classification

Strategy to be employed to teach the objective

Type of Learning


Application, Manipulation








Application, Precision




Application, Articulation




Knowledge, Manipulation








Application, Precision


Knowledge, Procedural


Knowledge, Imitation








Analysis, Manipulation

Supplantive, Generative

Conceptual, Procedural


Synthesis, Precision




Application, Precision


Conceptual, Procedural


Analysis, Precision

Supplantive, Generative



Application, Manipulation



Part 4.  Instructor Guide

Active Attention

Teacher will show Disneyland 5 Themes of Geography Presentation (http://bit.ly/f73mrh)

Prior knowledge for this assignment is completion of “The 5 Themes of Geography As I See Them” assignment, which called for students to take photos that were examples of the 5 Themes in their neighborhood/city/state.

    Establish Purpose

Learn new ways technology can be incorporated into schoolwork, social media, and future career applications.

Learn what a URL is and how it can be helpful in creating presentations.

Students use social media all the time.  Many of these sites allow for users to upload personal photos.  Even though most students indicated they use social networking sites, most did not feel comfortable with their ability to upload photos to those sites.

This assignment will teach students how to upload photos to Google Docs, how to acquire the URL of the uploaded image, and how to use the URL to put the photo into a Google Docs presentation.

Arouse Interest and Stimulate Learners’ Motivation

Teachers should find examples of projects that having an image URL may be useful for.  Teachers may also want to let students know how having an image’s URL makes it easier to share with friends via social media sites.

Preview Learning Activity and Provide Overview

In this lesson, groups will take images that are stored on the PCs in the schools computer lab and upload them to group members’ Google Docs sites.  Now that they are digitally stored online, images will have an address that is called a URL.  This may take a bit of explaining, since most students (60%) surveyed didn’t know how to find one or didn’t know what a URL was.

Images will be placed into a Google Docs presentation showing how the 5 Themes of Geography can be seen in the area in which your students live.  Students will get to show off their knowledge about how the 5 Themes can be seen all around them.

Recall Relevant Prior Knowledge

Groups will be given Student Handout A and expected to give brief definitions of for each of the 5 Themes.

Students will have time in the school’s computer lab to access photos stored on PCs there from previous lesson, “The 5 Themes of Geography As I See Them”, and access their Google Docs accounts.

Process Information and Examples

The instructor will need to schedule 1.5-2 class sessions in the school’s computer lab to complete this portion of the lesson.

It would be best to have a computer, with headphones or speakers, for each student.

Give a copy of Student Handout B to each group.

The instructor needs to be available to move around the room and answer questions and sign off on task completion for each group.

Reinforce the correct steps students/groups are taking from the tutorial videos, and correct mistakes.

    Focus Attention

If students/groups have trouble, direct them to replay any of the tutorials that may be helpful.

Remind students that they may pause or rewind any of the instruction.  This way the tutorials go at the speed each student needs to accomplish the procedural task.

Continue to move about the computer lab or classroom and be ready to sign off on various steps of the lesson as groups complete them.

    Employ Learning Strategies

Students will need guidance to complete Step 5 of Student Handout B.  Each group needs to create a mnemonic device to help themselves, and others, remember how to complete the process of uploading a photo, retrieving the URL, and placing the URL into a presentation.  When examples are given, use ones that don’t are generic and don’t apply to this actual process, or students will be tempted to copy that.  Make up an example for some other process, i.e. tying shoes.

    Practice or Provide for Practice

At this point students will have watched all tutorials and have completed steps 1-5 on Student Handout B.  All group members should be involved in creating the presentation; step 6 on Student Handout B.

    Provide Feedback

As students work at their individual computers on the group’s presentation, make sure to move around the room and correct procedural mistakes as they occur.

One of the most clumsy parts of making the presentation is having to back to their main Google Docs folder to open the image file to get the URL to insert into the presentation.  Show students how to have Google Docs open in two windows to make the process more efficient.

Summarize and Review

Have groups exchange their mnemonic devices with another group and see how easy it is, or isn’t, for them to follow another group’s thinking process.  Encourage them to add suggestions that may make the device more clear.

Once groups have their mnemonic device back, give them a couple of minutes to go over it and see if they want to make changes based on suggestions from the reviewing group.

Ask for individuals or groups to mention any problems they encountered while practicing the process and creating slides for their presentation.

Transfer Learning

Have groups discuss what other situations the skills learned in this  might be applied to, then talk about those as a class.

Remotivate and Close

Remind students/groups of the task that needs to be completed (the finished slide presentation.)

Encourage them to make it as professional and interesting as possible.

Give everyone Student Handout C, the grading rubric for the presentation.

Assess Learning

Students/groups should be given adequate time to finish the project and meet the standards of the given rubric.

Evaluate Feedback and Seek Remediation

If students/groups are receive a score of 18 or less on the rubric, have them review the tutorial videos and re-accomplish the tasks that were found lacking in the presentation.

Part 5.  Learner Content

Part 5a – Learning Materials:

On the following pages, instructors will find Student Handouts A-C needed for this lesson.

5 Themes of Geography Summary Information

Student Handout A

Directions:  For each of the 5 Themes, your group needs to write a brief description, in your own words, of what each of the themes means to you.  This will be used later to add information to each slide.





Human Environment Interaction:

Group Checklist:  5 Themes Photo Presentation
Student Handout B

Directions:  Upon completion of each step, groups must get the instructors initials before moving on.

_____ Step 1.  Complete Student Handout A, 5 Themes of Geography Summary Information.

_____ Step 2.  In the computer lab, watch tutorial videos 1 (Uploading Photos and Creating an Image URL) and 2 (Create a New Presentation, Change File Name and Title.)  The instructor must see your presentation with a title slide to get this step initialed.

_____ Step 3.  In the computer lab, watch tutorial video 3 (Adding New Slides, Giving the Presentation a Theme or Background.)  To get checked off on this step you must show the instructor that you have added new slides and chosen a theme for your presentation.

_____ Step 4.  In the computer lab, watch tutorial video 4 (Adding information and images to the slides.)  You must add an image and some information to at least one slide to get checked off on this step.  Your group can change the slide later if necessary, but you must show that you know how to complete the process to move on.

_____ Step 5.  Now that your group has watched the tutorial videos and know all the steps involved in the process, you need to come up with a way to help yourselves (and others) remember how to do it without the videos.  You may want to write a song, set to the music of a favorite Christmas tune or something else people will recognize, about the process.  A poem, acronym, or acrostic would also be appropriate.  Your teacher will be able to help you with ideas if you get stuck.

_____ Step 6.  Either at home or in the lab, your group must complete the presentation by creating at least two slides for each of the 5 Themes.  Each slide must contain one image and an explanation of how that image shows the chosen theme as seen in your local area.
Share the presentation with your instructor via email from Google Docs.

Grading Rubric – 5 Themes Presentation
Student Handout C

This rubric is based on evaluation tool found at http://www.sites4teachers.com/links/redirect.php?url=http://imet.csus.edu/imet6/canet/classes/csus/i_met/284/PPRubric-1.pdf







Content is
accurate and
information is
presented in a logical order.

Content is
accurate but some
information is not
presented in a
logical order, but
is still generally
easy to follow.

Content is
accurate but
information is not
presented in a
logical order,
making it difficult
to follow.

Content is
questionable and
information is not
presented in a
logical order,
making it difficult
to follow.

Content is
inaccurate and
information is not
presented in a
logical order,
making it difficult
to follow.

Slide Creation

Presentation flows
well and logically.
reflects extensive
use of tools in a
creative way.
Correct number
of slides.

Presentation flows
well. Tools used
Correct number
of slides. Overall
presentation is

Presentation flows
well. Some tools
used to show
Correct number
of slides.

Presentation is
Tools are not used
in a relevant
manner. Lacking
in number of slides.

Presentation has
no flow. No tools
number of slides.

Images and Format

Images all have a URL.
is pleasing to the
eye. Font color is easily readable.

Most images all have a URL.
is uniform. Font color is readable.

Some images all have a URL.
and font have been changed.

Some images do not have a URL.  Background and/or font distract the viewer.

Some images missing and/or do not have URL.  Background/font not changed.


No spelling
errors. No
grammar errors.
Text is in
authors’ own

Few spelling
errors. Few
grammar errors.
Text is in
authors’ own

Some spelling
errors. Some
grammar errors.
Text is in
authors’ own

Some spelling
errors. Some
grammar errors.
Most of text is in
authors’ own

Many spelling
errors and/or
text is copied.

Part 5b – Formative and/or Summative Assessment Materials:

Student Handout B provides the instructor with a formative evaluation tool, as instructors must recognize and progress and goal accomplishment for each step of the learning outcome process.  Student Handout C and the project each group will accomplish provide a summative assessment for this lesson.

A post-lesson survey can be found at (insert address here) after completion of the project.

Part 5c – Technology Tool Justification:

The use of Google Docs, and their suite of Web 2.0 tools, is critical for this lesson.  Again, the goals are to be able to upload photos/images from a computer to a website, be able to retrieve the URL for such photos, and insert photos into a presentation using the URL.  Google Docs was chosen for this lesson because it 1) provides a safe environment for students to have access to Web 2.0 tools, 2) allows for cloud-based file storage that enables access at any internet-connected computer, and 3) conveniently lets students store their images in the same place where they can also create presentations, documents, spreadsheets, etc., in which the images can be used.

Part 6.  Formative Evaluation Plan

Part 6a – Expert Review:

I plan to ask Shannon Heiner to be my SME.  I think he’s a perfect choice to evaluate the work.  As mentioned he has a degree in Ed Tech and teaches computer application classes every day.  I would seek input along the following lines:

  1. Does the material presented in the lesson seem relevant for this age group?

  2. Can the subject matter be taught properly in the time allotted?

  3. Have I adequately estimated the prerequisite knowledge needed for the lesson?

  4. Is the instruction organized in a way that makes retention of procedural knowledge possible at a mastery level?

  5. Do the assessments included in the lesson adequately measure learning outcomes?

  6. What suggestions would you make to make the lesson better or instruction more relevant?

Part 6b – One-to-One Evaluation:

For this evaluation I will be asking for 6th grade teachers in my school to suggest some of their students who might be interested in completing the review.  I’ll be looking about 5 kids that have good grades and have inquisitive natures.  I want better than average students so that they can hopefully notice any spelling errors and possibly grammar problems.  Since they are sixth graders they will have had little to not exposure yet to the type of assignment and technology I’m using.  I’ll be observing their attempts and looking for steps or areas of the lesson where improvements need to be made.  I will interview them as a group and get suggestions that might help the lesson be more successful.

Part 6c – Small Group Evaluation:

The group used in this phase will be one of the keyboarding classes in my school.  The students will be more widely varied in this group than the one-to-one evaluation, and the lesson will be given by the classroom teacher.  I will be there to observe what takes place and see if the instruction is understood easily and how well students convert instruction into actions.  After the assignment has been completed the class will be given a short survey to help me understand their feelings about the lesson and make changes going forward.

Part 6d – Field Trial:

This portion of the evaluation will be completed by the same teacher that did the small group phase.  The lesson will be given to approximately 140 students.  The teacher received a Master’s in Educational Technology from BSU about seven years ago and is excited to try some of the new technologies that have been made available since completing the course.  From the previous two steps I will have compiled a list of questions that will be presented to the students in the form of an online survey.  I will also ask the teacher to evaluate the lesson for its flow and relevance.

Part 7.  Formative Evaluation Report

Part 8.  AECT Standards Grid


A.1 Perceptual Arousal

The instructor will show students pictures from the local area or someplace famous that students could know (or be interested in seeing).  Disneyland could be a good example of this idea.  Using photos taken at DL, explain how the 5 Themes of Geography play relate to that setting.

A2. Inquiry Arousal

The instructor will ask students what local (For local, consider anything in your state. Surrounding areas of other states, say within 100 miles, may be considered.)  features could be classified by the 5 Themes model created by the instructor in step 1.

A3. Variability

The instructor will have each student write down ideas for photos they could take that would fit into the model built above.  One sentence should be written to explain why the student thinks their idea “works”.


R1. Goal orientation

Analysis showed that only 33% of students surveyed felt above average confidence in their abilities to upload photos to the internet.  About 60% either didn’t know what an image URL was or couldn’t find it is asked.  Instruction will give students the confidence in these areas and enable them to have success in creating presentations in the future.

R2. Motive matching

The instructor will need to give good guiding instructions, examples, and non-examples of photos that could be used in the upcoming project.  Also, giving examples of how the skills to be learned in this lesson can be used in future educational and vocational settings (to hopefully increase intrinsic motivation) would be helpful.

R3. Familiarity

Many students will have seen photos of friends on blogs and social networking sites.  This involves uploading photos from a personal computer to an internet site.  Students may have wanted to keep some of those images for themselves that they found on the internet, which can be done by using the image URL.  Show them how they may have already accomplished some of the objectives in the upcoming lesson.


C1. Learning requirements

A rubric will be given to all students at the beginning of the lesson with clear standards for the students to meet.  Provide a list of what knowledge they should have prior to the lesson.  In seeing that they already possess much of the required knowledge, students will feel more confident.

C2. Success opportunities

While completing the task, provide students with positive feedback at various points.  Since this is a procedural lesson there will be many chances for success in the step-by-step following of instructions.  If students struggle with those steps, helping them find out where they went wrong and overcoming problems will also provide them with increased confidence.

C3. Personal control

Again, as this lesson involves procedural knowledge, one will be able to “get the picture” by the time they are done and will be able to accomplish a task they could not have before instruction.  Post-instruction students should be able to walk through the necessary steps to upload photos and create presentations by themselves.


S1. Natural consequences

Once students have acquired the skills necessary to upload photos to the proper site, creating an image URL, they will get to use those abilities to create a presentation for class.  The presentation will be published on their class group web-page.

S2. Positive consequences

Positive reinforcement will be provided by using the Skills Acquisition Checklist.  As students prove mastery of a skill (and the related sub-skills) they will have the instructor or group leader mark the appropriate box on the list.  Completion of the checklist allows that students presentation to be considered for an “A” grade on the presentation assignment.

S3. Equity

The instructor needs to provide reminders of how this skill can be used in other subject areas at school increase grades/success.  Also, give examples of how to use this skill in appropriate areas outside of school, such as social networking sites constantly used by students.

Keller, J. M. (1987). The systematic process of motivational design. Performance & Instruction, 26 (9/10), 1-8.


Before taking part in the EdTech program, I had never heard of the Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation (ADDIE) process that we studied in depth during the 503 course.  All of the components of standard 1.1 are at play in my Final Instructional Design Project for that course.  While I’m sure that when planning lessons I gave thought to what my students knew about a certain topic before teaching it (I often had them complete a Know, Want to Know, Learned chart before many units), this project encouraged me to actually get more data showing my students’ knowledge level or skill gaps in a certain area.  In the project we were going to do, students needed to take pictures with a digital camera of various geographic landforms that they may see in our area.  Photos would be uploaded to a cloud based storage location so that they could be easily placed in a slide presentation created using some Web 2.0 tools (Google Docs and Zoho.com were two common choices).  After speaking to a few students it quickly became obvious that many of them had no knowledge of how to upload photos or make a presentation.  I created a survey to assess the learning needs of my students in terms of what skills they already had, and design instruction that would fill in the knowledge gaps for students with various skill levels.  I tried to keep the ADDIE process in mind throughout the development of the assignment.  Through the course you realize that the analyzing phase tends to happen continually.  I couldn’t just evaluate students’ understanding of how to use the tools once.  I had to keep doing it, then using that information to change the design of the lesson, and finally implement those changes.  Even as I implemented steps guided by my research, I would evaluate whether or not those steps were going to be effective for the largest number of students possible.  After evaluation, I knew that the design of the course had to involve more instruction aimed at getting them familiar with the technology.  If you’re going to do the research into what your students need, you have to actually incorporate the results into the course you make (Shibley, Amaral, Shank, & Shibley, 2011).  Creating the flow chart that attempted to plan in advance for almost any mistake that could be made, or where a lack of knowledge could cause the process to fall apart, was so insightful for me in the rest of my teaching. Without using the ADDIE model for instructional design to guide every step of this unit of instruction, it could not have been nearly as successful.